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The Odour Classification of Essential Oils The Odour Classification of Essential Oils
by Murray Hunter
2013-04-05 10:38:23
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Odour is the primary feature of an essential oil when utilized as part of a product displaying a scent. Therefore odours require a standard system of classification, where those involved in the production, trade and eventual downstream product have a commonly understood method of description. A number of systems have been developed over the years by eminent perfumers. Due to the nature of our sense of smell and cognitive interpretation of an odour, each developed system is based on subjectivity, opinion and judgments. Although analytic apparatus like the electronic nose through fuzzy logic [1] can catagorise an odour [2], such techniques cannot replace the need for human input in the odour classification process because any automated measurement system would be unable to identify quality (i.e., a shared subjective opinion on what is liked or disliked in an essential oil).

Odour classification systems have been developed over the years, utilizing groupings based on the paradigms of nature, i.e., floral, woody, fruity, herbaceous, etc. This reflects the fact that the majority of odours relate to nature and that perfumery has an artistic basis (most classification systems developed relate to essential oil application in fragrance). Some systems were developed as an odour description map, so odours could be placed in various relative categories, while others have attempted to measure odour attributes like tenacity and volatility, qualities important to a perfumer. Table 1. shows the major contributions to the evolution of odour classification.

Table 1. A Chronology of Odour Classification Systems

Developer

Year

Comments and Contribution

Aristotle

384-322 BC

The Greek philosopher Aristotle was the first person in recorded history to classify odours. He classified them into six groups (sweet, acid, severe, fatty, sour and fetid odours).

Linnaeous

1707-1778

The Swedish botanist Linnaeous based his odour classification on seven groups (aromatic odours, fragrant odours, ambrosiac odours, alliaceous odours, fetid odours, repulsive odours and disgusting odours.

Fourcroy

1798

Fourcroy, a French chemist and politician who founded the French Museum of Natural Sciences classified odours into five groups (extractive odours, volatile odours, aromatic odours, acidous odours and hydrosulfurous odours).

Piesse

1865

George Piesse, a chemist and perfumer from London matched odours to musical notes. Piesse through his classification system developed the concept of producing harmonious chords by matching heavy and light notes together, concepts and terms which remain in perfumery today.

Rimmel

1865

Rimmel published a classification scheme placing similar odours into 18 groups in his Book of Perfumes in 1865.

Zwaardemaker

1895

Hendrick Zwaardemaker, a German in his book Die Physiologie Des Geruchs (The Psychology of perfumes) in 1895 classified odours according to their content in nine main groups.                 

Henning

1916

Hans Henning in his 1916 book Der Geruch (The Odours), classified odours into six descriptive groupings (flowery, fruity, balsamic, burnt, foul and spicy), placing them on a prism to show their spatial relationship to each other.

Cerbelaud

1920

Rene Cerbelaud, a French chemical engineer developed a classification system based on 45 botanical families of similar odour.

Gatterosse

1881

Rene Gattefosse, a French chemical engineer developed a classification system reducing Cerbelaud’s 45 botanical groups to 15 botanical groups based on odour and constituents.

Redgrove

1887-1943

Herbert Stanley Redgrove, an English chemist and writer, classified odours into classes and types.

Croker & Henderson

1927

Crocker & Henderson classified odours into four large groups but assigned a numerical value to each odour after a semi-quantitative evaluation of each odour. This was the first time the intensity of the odour was taken into consideration.

Ellmer

1931

Albert Ellmar was the first to classify odours as top, middle and base notes, according to odour persistence.

Billot

1948

Marcel Billot, another French chemical engineer classified odours into eight groups, floral, balsamic, frutal, empyreumatic, comestible, woody, rural and repulsive. This was eventually extended to nine and ten groups [3].

Amore

1952

Amoore in 1952 classified odours into seven primary categories, ethereal, camphoraceous, musky, floral, minty, pungent, and putrid.

Poucher

1954

Poucher classified odour materials, through subjective evaluation according to their rate of evaporation on a scale of 100 and dividing them into top, middle and base notes. This classification method assists perfumers in selecting materials in the creation of fragrances. 

Arctander

1960

Stefan Arctander enlarged the odour classification to 88 groups according to odour, type and suggested use. The scheme contained cross references to assist in finding similar/complementary materials in other groups [4].

Carles

1961

Jean Carles further developed the concepts of top, middle and base notes and harmony for fragrance composition through his odour volatility tables.

Robert

1962

Henri Robert, former chief perfumer of Chanel developed a classification scheme which combines groups of odorants with in declining order of volatility (i.e., top, middle and base notes) [5].

 

The difference in each classification system reflects the subjectivity and various opinions as to where odours should be placed. Some odours can be placed in more than one category, depending on the importance placed on particular odour qualities. Some classification systems have taken wide category views, while others have preferred to increase the number of categories to reflect the diversity within each general odour direction. This is why many perfumers maintain their own private systems of odour classification to suit their own purposes. There is in fact no accepted industry standard of description, although some international fragrance houses publish their own from time to time.

A number of perfume classification software packages and other forms of manuals exist. One example is Stephen Dowthwaite’s software classification system which assists perfumers to examine the odour profile of particular notes, the relative impact of the note, odour life and potential application in perfumery [6]. A slightly earlier descriptive classification system developed by Dr. Tony Curtis of the University of Plymouth Business School and the late Mr. David Williams of the Perfumery Education Centre was published in their textbook Introduction to Perfumery  in 1994 [7], and used in their teaching programs [8]. Their system classifies odours into families that have features and potential applications in common, arbitrarily excluding odours like the stapelia species, where most members exude the odour of rotton fish and are repulsive. Additional modifying descriptors like light and heavy, sweet and dry are used to assist in classifying wide ranging odours in categories like floral. Curtis and Williams clearly state that their odour classification system does not attempt to create any absolute odour classification, as this would not have much benefit to the perfumer [7]. Their system is meant to be flexible to assist in developing a common descriptive language accepted by all [7] and does not define any quality of odour except for illustrative purposes [7].

Most perfumers use variations of the odour classification systems described above, modified and adjusted to suit their purposes and experience. A modified version of Curtis and Williams’ odour classification system is summarized over the next few pages [7]. 

The Floral Family

The floral family is a very diverse group of odours. The one thing these odours have in common is that they come from a flower of a plant, with a few exceptions. However there are also a number of non-specific floral odours available in fine fragrance that cannot now be easily described through the nomination of a floral species. The floral group could be further divided into green, aldehydic, citrus-floral, heavy and light, etc. Some descriptions of the floral family are listed in Table 2. below.

Table 2. The Floral Family

Ambrette

A slightly sweet musk-floral type odour with underlying cognac notes (Note: This is a floral odour not from a flower, but seed)

Benzoate

An intense fruity-floral, somewhere between blackcurrant upon dilution to Ylang Ylang and tuberose when concentrated or slightly diluted.

Broom

A sweet floral hay-like odour with  bitter undertones

Carnation

Powerful, yet delicate floral-clove odour

Cassia

Complex spicy-citrus orange-violet floral odour

Cyclamen

Strong jasmine, lily, lilac, violet floral with green and earthy undertones.

Frangipani

A rich tropical violet like floral

Gardenia

A rich but fresh floral resembling jasmine and tuberose with green and light citrus-orange notes

Geranium

A leafy-rosy like odour with minty undertones

Hawthorn

A diffusive balsamic floral reminiscent of anisic and bitter almond

Heliotrope

A delicate bitter fruity almond floral with balsamic vanilla notes

Honeysuckle

A sweet but heavy floral with tuberose, honey and rose notes, with fresh orange flower note

Hyacinth

A fresh, diffusive, green balsamic jasmine like floral

Jasmine

A powerful honey-heliotrope like floral

Lilac

A fresh hay-like green jasmine-like floral

Lily

Sweet heavy floral reminiscent of hydroxycitronellal

Lily of the Valley

A fresh rosy-lemon floral note with green undertones

Lime blossom

A fresh lily, lilac-citrus odour

Magnolia

A sweet heavy rosy, violet-like floral odour with citrus undertones

Mimosa

A powerful green almond-like floral with citrus undertones

Narcissus

A complex and delicate hay-like sweet green floral with spicy undertones

Neroli

A sweet spicy orange blossom floral (could also be classified as citrus)

Orange flower

A warm spicy bitter orange floral

Osmanthus

An exotic floral odour reminiscent of plums and raisins

Reseda

A green, anisic, herbaceous floral odour

Rose

A powerful sweet warm honey-like waxy, slightly spicy/balsamic floral with very slight undertones cognac undertones 

Sweet pea

A delicate and sweet hyacinth-like, lily-like, orange blossom floral

Tuberose

A heavy, Ylang Ylang, orange flower type floral with green and caramel undertones

Violet

An intense peppery/spicy green floral with a powdery undertone

Wallflower

A somewhat lilac-like floral with a bitter almond undertone

Ylang ylang

A heavy but sweet fruity lilac, clove like floral with fruity undertones

The Woody Family

The Curtis and Williams classification system defines the woody family along a triangle of three main types, East Indian Sandalwood, Japanese hibawood and rosewood, where other woody notes can be described with reference to these main notes. Patchouli and a number of other odours can also be placed in the woody family expanding its scope.

Table 3. The Woody Family

Agarwood

An oriental vetiver-like odour with phenolic, smoky, earthy and mossy undertones.

Cederwood

A soft woody odour with earthy and smoky undertones

Guiacwood

A sweet balsamic rose-like odour

Hibawood

A dry, intense and pungent woody odour

Massoi

A pungent spicy resinous coconut-clove-like odour

Orris

A violet-like, oily wood odour

Patchouli

A powerful intense smooth spicy woody odour with earthy undertones

Rosewood

A slightly rose-like fatty sweet floral odour

Sandalwood

A sweet rich warm balsamic woody odour

The Animalic Family

This family was originally based on the four basic aromatic extracts of animal origin which included ambergris, castoreum, civet and musk. These notes with the exception of ambergris, smell very pungently repulsive in their undiluted form. In diluted form and skillfully used, these ingredients can add warm and masculine notes to fragrances. Musk in its natural form is rarely used in perfumery today, although a number of specialty chemicals which can provide musk notes exist.

Table 4. The Animalic Family

Ambergris

A warm but dry balsamic, tobacco-like, marine-like odour

Amine

Ammonia-like, fish odour

Castoreum

A warm phenolic leather-like, sweet clean herbaceous odour

Civet

A warm musky, slightly faecal odour

Indolic

A heavy lilac-like animalic, naphthalenic odour

Leather

A balsamic cresylic, phenolic, animalic (equine) like odour

Musky

A sweet warm heavy musk-like odour

The Balsamic Family

Vanilla is a theme which runs through a large number of members in this family. These notes are usually modified which cinnamic alcohols, esters, and acids, in the case of Peru, Tolu and Styrax resins, bringing warm oriental and even woody notes. Many of these resins form base notes and blend well with members of the floral family and used in bases for floral, aldehydic and oriental perfumes.

Table 5. The Balsamic Family

Cistus

A warm diffusive spicy and balsamic odour with dry woody undertones

Cognac

A warm fruity, nutty-woody rum-like bouquet

Labdanum

A powerful sweet ambergris-like odour

Olibanum

A balsamic spicy, slightly lemon-like odour with resinous undertones

Opopanax

A warm balsamic spicy odour, reminiscent of wine

Peru Balsam

A sweet, rich, soft, balsamic vanilla cinnamate odour

Styrax

A sweet balsamic cinnamate odour

Tolu Balsam

A sweet balsamic cinnamate vanilla odour

Vanilla

An intensely sweet warm balsamic odour

The Agrestic Family

The agrestic family hosts a number of notes from the forest, jungles, meadows and soil of the earth. This is a very diverse group, even within each description as there is a range of earthy smells. For example, differences in pine and other types of forests, a number of different vegetable type odours. Another direction is oakmoss which is green, earthy and mossy.

Table 6. The Agrestic Family

Calamus

A heavy, earthy but slightly sweet slightly bitter root-like odour

Earthy

A fresh woody, vegetable odour

Forest

A moist fresh woody, vegetable type odour

Galbanum

A sharp green, spicy, leaf-like odour with earthy, coniferous undertones

Hay

A sweet warm, dry, agrestic and herbaceous odour

Mushroom

A musty fungal-like odour

Oakmoss

An earthy, green, woody, leather, slightly phenolic odour

Vegetable

Freshly cut or cooked tubers, roots or rhizomes, earthy-green in character

The Coniferous Family

This family includes both the pine (fir) and resinous odours that are found in forests and other natural surroundings.

Table 7. The Coniferous Family

Pine Fir

Resinous, balsamic and terpentine notes

Resinous

Forest, woody, terpentine and balsamic notes

The Marine Family

A family that has grown in odour importance over the last few decades, however essential oils make little contribution, with the exception of a few (non-commercially produced) that have what one could call marine type odours. Ambergris could also be included in this family.

Table 8. The Marine Family

Beach

Fresh, earthy, ozonic, seaweed notes

Ozonic

Fresh, marine, earthy notes (like after rain)

Seaweed

Marine, mossy, amine notes

The Aldehydic Family

The aldehydes in this family referred to are usually the fatty and waxy type aldehydes. These are all pungent materials which only smell orangey, florally, etc., upon dilution. There are few economic sources of natural aldehydes, so most used in perfumery are of synthetic origin.

Table 9. The Aldehydic Family

Fatty

Powerful fatty odours, but pleasant and citrusy on dilution

Waxy

Waxy, floral type odours, becoming sweet on dilution

The Medicated Family

Odours in this group are usually culturally accepted odours associated with medication. These include the camphorous and wintergreen type odours in balms and the phenolic and cresylic odours of disinfectants.

Table 10. The Medicated Family

Camphorous

Odour of camphor

Cineolic

Eucalyptus type odours

Cresylic

Cresolic and phenolic odours

Juniper

Powerful green, herbaceous odour with pine-needle type undertones

Mentholic

Menthol and peppermint type odours

Terpenic

Monoterpenes

Tymeolic

Thymol and thyme

Wintergreen

Methyl salicylate

The Fruity Family

The fruity family has two distinctive branches which can be broken up into two families, fruity and citrus. Some of the odour types are well known and the fruit is just referred to in the description column. There are numerous fruits not included in this list which have distinct odours and are also in this family, particularly a number of fruits originating from the Asian region. These would include mango, guava, longan, lychee, papaya, mangosteen, starfruit, durian, tamarind and jackfruit, etc.

Table 11. The Fruity Family

Apple

As the odour of the fruit when cut

Apricot

Odour of the fruit when handled

Banana

Odour of the fruit when mashed

Blackcurrant

Odour of the fruit

Coconut

A milky-fatty santan-like odour

Pear

Odour of the fruit

Peach

Odour of the fruit

Pineapple

As the odour of the fruit when cut

Prune

Odour of the fruit

Rasberry

As the odour of the fruit when cut

Strawberry

As the odour of the fruit when cut

Watermelon

As the odour of the fruit when cut

The Citrus Family

These notes are the same as the notes of freshly crushed fresh fruits (see table notes). A few citrus notes occur from non citrus fruit plants such as litsea cubeba and lemongrass.

Table 12. The Citrus Family

Bergamot

A sharp fresh lively citrus odour with fruity and sweet undertones

Grapefruit

A fresh, bitter citrus-grapefruit odour

Lemon

A very lively and refreshing odour of the peel of the lemon

Lemongrass

A sharp citrus-like odour with grassy-hay and fruity undertones

Lime

A very intense sweet lively citrus-like odour

Mandarin

A lively citrus-like odour with sweet undertones

Orange sweet

Sweet, lively, fruity sweetness, the typical odour of orange peels

Orange Bitter

Lively, bitter, dry, the typical odour of oranges

Pomelo

A similar odour to a grapefruit without the bitterness

Pithy

A dry citrus-note, similar to dried orange peels

Tangerine

A sweet citrus-like odour with floral, aldehydic undertones, something between orange and mandarin

The Green Family

Green notes resemble cut grass, crushed leaves, moss, vegetables and other notes from the forest floor. Green notes are important support notes in floral, chypre, oriental and even modern citrus perfumes.

Table 13. The Green Family

Cress

Cress and watercress have distinctive green notes that aromatic materials like phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal resemble.

Cucumber

A green note resembling freshly cut cucumber

Grassy

Resembles freshly cut grass similar to cis-3-hexanol

Leafy

Resembles the odour of crushed green leaves

The Mint Family

The mint family has the unique note diffused by peppermint and spearmint. This is primarily from the menthol content of these essential oils.

Table 14. The Mint Family

Peppermint

A powerful sweet, fresh minty odour with grassy and balsamic undertones

Pennyroyal

A fresh warm minty with spicy and bitter undertones

Spearmint

A warm green fresh minty odour

The Spicy Family

Spicy notes closely resemble the notes of their respective culinary spice preparations. Most of these notes are warm and rich and difficult to describe without reference to the original spice. This is only a representative list, as there are many other members of this family.

Table 15. The Spicy Family

Celery

A warm spicy sweet vegetable odour

Cinnamon

A powerful warm spicy sweet odour

Clove

A powerful warm spicy sweet odour

Coriander

A spicy aromatic odour with aldehydic undertones

Cumin

A powerful soft green spicy odour with anise-like undertones

Elemi

A fresh spicy lemon-like odour with green-woody undertones

Fenugreek

A walnut type odour with woody backnotes

Ginger

A warm spicy woody odour with sweet undertones

Helichrysum

A sweet honey-like fruity-spicy odour with tobacco and celery like undertones

Hyssop

A sweet spicy camphoraceous odour with a warm woody undertone

Lovage

A powerful sweet spicy odour reminiscent of celery and angelica root, also a green mossy note

Nutmeg

A pungent tropical spicy odour with a fruity undertone

Pepper

A very intense warm spicy peppery odour reminiscent of cubeb

Perilla

A powerful oily odour reminiscent of cumin

Pimento

A balsamic odour resembling clove, nutmeg and cubeb

The Herbaceous Family

The herbaceous family is related to the spicy family. Most of these notes described relate to the original herb. Again this is not an inclusive list be examples of members of this family.

Table 16 The Herbaceous Family

Anise

A powerful sweet herbaceous odour

Artemisia

A fresh green-like but lively herbaceous odour

Chamomile

A sweet herbaceous-like odour with fresh fruity undertones, sometimes reminiscent of cocoa

Estragon

A spicy-anise like herbaceous odour reminiscent of celery

Fennel

A sweet anethole-like odour

Hop

A harsh, bitter herbaceous-spicy odour with cheese-like undertones

Lavender

A sweet balsamic herbaceous odour with floral notes and woody undertones

Marjoram

A typical herbaceous odour reminiscent of the herb itself

Rosemary

A powerful woody, herbaceous odour reminiscent of lavender with slight camphoraceous notes

Sage

A fresh herbaceous-camphoraceous note with medicinal undertones

Tagetes

A very intense herbaceous odour reminiscent of fruit.

Tea

Warm, herbaceous and reminiscent of tobacco

Tobacco

A warm aromatic sweet hay-like herbaceous notes with slight green, dry woody undertones

Classifying odours was simpler before the era of synthetic materials in the 1950s. This has been made even more difficult with the advent of patented specialty chemicals. Curtis and Williams stated “that to include a ‘miscellaneous’ category in a system of classification is to acknowledge defeat in respect of those items so designated, and to establish a kind of dumping ground for the victims of one’s ignorance, wherein anything at all may be deposited” [7]. However, they go on to argue that there is such a diversity of odour qualities in a single odour profile that it would be possible to fit most odours within existing families on the basis of some selected characteristics, but this could be misleading. A number of notes that fall into this category are described in Table 17 below.

Table 17 Unclassified Odours

Burnt

Odour of scorching

Caramel

Odour of cooking sugar before any burnt odours

Fatty

Odour of natural fats

Honey

Odour of honeycomb and natural honey

Metalic

Odours suggestive of metals

Naphthenic

Odour of naphthalene and indole

Oily

Vegetable oil odour

Smoky

Suggestive of smoke, liquid smoke

Sulphurous

Sulphur odour

Waxy

Reminiscent of beeswax

Older classification systems have used additional terms to further desribe the direction of odours. For example, Aristotle used sweet, acid, severe, fatty, sour and fetid as descriptors and fourcroy used extractive, volatile, aromatic, acidous hydrosulfurous categories to classify odours. These systems much wider in their descriptive terms capture all types of odour profiles, but at the same time are less accurate or precise in their class classification, thus rendering the system less useful to the perfumer in understanding the nature of the profile.

Terms normally used to describe other physical things can be adopted for the purpose of odour classification. Characteristic descriptors that have opposites tend to be appreciated better as the terms can be seen as being more relative with an opposite present. If these terms are learned for the purposes of odour description, then communication about an odour characteristic between two people can be commonly understood. Table 18 shows some examples of odour descriptors.

Table 18 Some Examples of Odour Descriptors

Light

Like in some citrus oils, neroli oil

Heavy

Like in some florals like tuberose, ylang ylang

Sweet

Like vanilla, Peru Balsam, Labdanum

Bitter

Like bitter orange, also dry-like

Fresh

Neroli and lavender oils

Stale

From old rancid essential oils

Cool

Peppermint oil

Warm

Clove and nutmeg oils

Soft

Like sandalwood oil

Hard

Like vetiver oil

Smooth

Benzoin resinoid

Harsh

Ammonia

Rich

Like patchouli, geranium, clove bud oils

Thin

Limonene and terpenes

Delicate

Like jasmine, tuberose, violet absolute

Course

Naphthenic odours

Dry

Like carrot seed oil

Moist

Like Oakmoss

Diffusive

An odour which spreads out around a room

Weak

An odour that is barely noticeable around a room

Sharp

Like the odour of freshly cut lemons

Blunt

Like petitgrain oil

Tropical

A wide range of oils that can be considered tropical

Powdery

An odour that suggests something powdery

Through the use of simple charts to record impressions during an odour evaluation, a picture of the odour profile can be presented and compared with other profiles. A second chart enables the recording of a relative descriptor values by drawing a line between the opposites. Figure 1. shows how a profile for lemongrass oil could be represented pictorially.

hunt0001_400_01

hunt0002_400_01

Figure 1. A hypothetical Odour Profile for Lemongrass Oil

References

1.         Dumitrescu, D., Lazzerini, B., and Marcelloni, F., (2000), A Fuzzy Hierarchical    

           Classification System for Olfactory Analysis, Pattern Analysis & Applications, Vol. 3, No. 4, 

           December, pp. 325-334.

2.         Loutfi, A., and Coradeschi, S., (2004), Forming Odour Categories using and Electronic  

           Nose, in Proc. Of European Conference in Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004),  

           ftp://aass.oru.se/pub/ali/ECAI04.pdf, (accessed 3rd August 2008)

3.         Billot, M., (1966), Composition in Perfumery, Soap, Perfum. Cosm., February 1966.

4.         Arctander, S., (1960), Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, Elizabeth, N.J.,

           Self Published.

5.         Robert, H., (1962), Quelques Reflexions sur Ia Compostion en Parfumerie, Parf. Cosm.

           Sav.

6.          See Perfumers World Website at http://www.perfumersworld.com   

           /software/pwabc10.htm#AZtable

7.         Curtis, T., and Williams, D. G., (2001), Introduction to Perfumery, Weymouth, Dorset,

           Micelle Press.


     
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Leah Sellers2013-04-09 06:36:54
Dear Sir,
I find your Work and Writings regarding Plants (as well as their odours/fragrances) fascinating and informative.
Hope you don't mind, but I have been sharing your work with some frineds of mine that I know are interested in the same areas.
As I'm sure you know, Fragrance is a Mood Enhancer, a Mood Changer that alures or repels or both within one instantaneous and automatic Inhalation. Fragrance, like Music effects/affects the Living Creature smelling it ineffably. Fragrance, especially the right one, like Music and the right Song, can send one flying across the fantastic Imaginings, Hopes, Dreams and Mysteries of the Mind, Body and Soul. And for the People involved in Creating Fragrance, it (much like Music) is an inviolable Alchemical Art Form.


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