Ovi -
we cover every issue
newsletterNewsletter
subscribeSubscribe
contactContact
searchSearch
Philosophy Books  
Ovi Bookshop - Free Ebook
Stop human trafficking
Ovi Language
Michael R. Czinkota: As I See It...
Stop violence against women
Murray Hunter: Opportunity, Strategy and Entrepreneurship
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
 
BBC News :   - 
iBite :   - 
GermanGreekEnglishSpanishFinnishFrenchItalianPortugueseSwedish
Manuel II Palaeologus Manuel II Palaeologus
by Ergo te Lina
2006-09-29 09:59:28
Print - Comment - Send to a Friend - More from this Author
DeliciousRedditFacebookDigg! StumbleUpon

In his conference in Regensburg University, Pope Benedict XVI quoted a statement of a Dialogue of Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus with a Muslim, and this statement is in the focus of polemics. The Pope said that he did not adopt the statement he quoted, therefore everybody agrees now in rejecting that the Pope who has responsibility for this this "medieval text of a by-gone age." Now, it is Manuel II who appears as the "naughty boy" of the story.

I am puzzled that in a controversy which concerns a Byzantine Emperor, nobody asked the advice of byzantinists. I happen to know about Manuel II and to have studied this text. For that reason, I believe it is my duty to bring some details to the attention of the public, because in the media, everyone has said just about anything about this text and about Manuel II. For example, somebody said, on the France Culture channel, that he used to burst the eyes of his prisoners. In fact, seven centuries separate Manuel II and Basil II, the emperor who, indeed, burst the eyes of his prisoners.

Context of the quotation

The controversial statement ("Show me that Mohammed brought anything new: you will find nothing, but bad and inhuman, for instance what he states by ordering his faith to be imposed by sword") is taken from the seventh chapter of a book which is composed of 26 chapters.

This seventh book was edited in 1966 by Th. Khoury in Sources Chretiennes 115, and, it seems, it is from this edition that Pope took this statement, since he quotes Th. Khoury. The entire Greek text was edited by E. Trapp in 1966 in the Wiener Byzantinische Studien. A revised edition is being done by K. Forstel in the le Corpus islamo-christianum, series graeca. A German translation of chapters 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 has been published by R. Senoner in 2003 in Wien.

Context of the discussion

ovi_pope02According to a treaty between his father John V Paleologus and the Sultan Bayezid, who had helped him against his rebel grandson, Manuel II had to serve as a vassal in the army of Bayezid. During a campaign in Asia Minor against the Mongols (1391), he held a discussion, as sharp as peaceful, with an ulema of Ankara, with whom he was staying. Some years after, while Bayezid was besieging Constantinople, Manuel wrote this discussion. The title was: "Dialogue of Emperor Manuel with a Persian" ("Persian", in the Byzantine language of this time, meant 'Turk', to remind people of the ancient conflict between Greeks and Persians).

Contrary to many treatises of anti-Muslim polemics, which we find in Western Christendom as well as in the Byzantine Empire, this text is the written record of a discussion that really took place. Manuel presents his Muslim partner in a positive way, as a host respectful and curious to know the religion of his host. The discussion is as cordial as frank, since neither of the two hesitates to expose what he doesn't like in the religion of the other. The relations between both men are not altered by it. This text is one of the first inter-religious dialogues, where each people displays his own truth and looks for dialogue without disavowing anything of what he believes.

The editor, Th. Khoury, writes in his introduction: "The immoderate expressions, relatively rare, which we can read in the text come mostly from the liberties that Manuel took when finally writing his text". The fact that Bayezid was besieging Constantinople when Manuel was writing can explain the hardening of his language.

Violence and Faith

Returning to the quotation, and the issue of violence and faith, Benedict XVI quotes a statement of the 7th Controversy, which concerns Jihad. It is a classical theme of the polemics between Byzantines and muslims. We find it from the first centuries of the Arab conquest.

This theme gained importance after the Crusades. At the time of Manuel, when Byzantines objected to the idea of a holy war, they have as a line of sight, in the same time, Muslim Jihad and western crusade. It is an aspect of Byzantine mentality that we should never forget, especially at the end of the Empire. By opposing Islam on that point, a Byzantine has always in his mind the trauma of 4th Crusade and all the expeditions when they saw Christian soldiers with a cross on their dresses and handling a sword on the name of Christ.

We see that this statement, when put into its context, gains a meaning different from the one the media give it.

Original text copyright by Marie Helene Congourdeau, the author, and MidEastWeb for Coexistence, RA. Posted at MidEastWeb Middle East Web Log.

Pope Benedict, Islam Extremists and the Greek Orthodox

Pope Benedict's speech was an event that was almost ignored in Hellas compared to the coverage in the West. The "usual" opinion makers of mass media were mute. His lecture was not just a criticism of establishing religions using violence and Jihad (holy war) but it was a criticism of a West that discourages the expression of Faith as not politically correct.

Points of discussion:

a) How an atheistic West can open a meaningful dialogue for peace with a deeply religious Islam?

b) The majority of the Western Press defended the right of the Pope to express his thoughts and more than that condemned the violent protests of the Islamist extremists in response to the Pope's speech.

c) The Pope didn't attack Islam as a religion but the extreme actions and violence of the fundamentalists and terrorists that attack in the name of Islam (i.e 9/11).

d) Pope Benedict criticizes the removal of the Hellenic thought from Christianity. The convergence of Faith and Philosophy is the definite criteria to identify Christianity in Europe. We need this synthesis between the Greek spirit and the Christian spirit

The Pope said:

"I believe that here we can see the profound harmony between what is Greek in the best sense of the word and the biblical understanding of faith in God...God acts with logos. Logos means both reason and word-- a reason which is creative and capable of self-communication, precisely as reason"

Taken from: Τα παιδία παίζει, θρηνεί, σκέφτεται, δρα

Related links:

Ovi magazine: Pope quoting history by Thanos Kalamidas
Interneto Ergo Sum: Who was Manuel II Paleologos and why so violent reactions?


Print - Comment - Send to a Friend - More from this Author

Comments(0)
Get it off your chest
Name:
Comment:
 (comments policy)

© Copyright CHAMELEON PROJECT Tmi 2005-2008  -  Sitemap  -  Add to favourites  -  Link to Ovi
Privacy Policy  -  Contact  -  RSS Feeds  -  Search  -  Submissions  -  Subscribe  -  About Ovi