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Holes in the Universe
by Jack Wellman
2009-01-25 09:39:45
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The surprisingly short and oxy-moronic answer is that a white hole is something which probably cannot exist in the real universe. Some scientists believe that white holes exist. Mathematics are said to reveal their reality. It is said that mathematics must be used to explore the space-time around a black hole without including the star which made the black hole where there is absolutely no matter in the solution. Once you add any matter to the space-time, the part which included a white hole disappears. Are you utterly confused yet? Join the rest of us.
Since my early youth, science has always deeply fascinated me and in particularly, deep space where there are many unseen expanses of the seemingly endless universe. So, my question naturally was: How can you have a black hole with no mass, if this means that it is accompanied with a white hole?  Apparently, the singularity is set up to hold itself together, so the tricky part is setting up the singularity. The only way to set up the singularity in the real universe is, we are told, to start with it being there. Somehow the universe has to form with readymade singularities.
So, why can't white holes exist in nature while saying that they cannot actually exist? There is no reason to suggest that the universe started out with readymade singularities. It would actually be quite odd if it did, because once it has even the tiniest speck of dust in it, the part of space-time which includes the black hole must necessarily cause the part which includes the white hole to completely disappear. It is generally assumed that the universe has been around for a very long time, so even if it did begin with white holes present, they would have all disappeared by now. So what is the solution to this perplexing phenomena or none-existent thing that presumably does exist?
Can you see a white hole and if visible, what would it look like? The name “white hole” is actually quite literal. A white hole is pretty much like an “anti-black hole“. A black hole is a place where matter can be lost from the universe, including even light. A white hole is a place where matter would pop out into the universe. So if white holes do or did ever exist, they could not exist with any matter in them. They would cease to exist, since by definition white holes must not contain even a grain of dust.
Astronomer, Karen Masters said (in Jan. 2002) "In the full, and most simple General Relativistic solution for a space-time which has a Black Hole (in a vacuum), there are two singularities. One is in what we call the 'future-light cone' and this is the Black Hole. The other is in the 'past-light cone' and is called a White Hole. This solution is however completely unphysical in many ways and in a real Black Hole (formed from the collapse of a star for example) we cannot use the vacuum solution as there is matter present, and the White Hole singularity disappears…such a thing as a White Hole in the theory of Black Holes would indicate that no such thing is possible physically." So do White Holes exist? 
On Discovery Channel’s recent broadcast, “The Universe” it is said that White holes, without question, do exist. But White holes are not something that it is possible to understand using physical intuition. White holes pop up in general relativity (which also explains the expansion of the universe) and that theory as a whole is not easy to understand physically. The only way most people can understand general relativity is through mathematics.
Wikipedia states that White Holes “…appear as part of the vacuum solution to the Einstein field equations describing a Schwarzschild wormhole. One end of this type of wormhole is a black hole, drawing in matter, and the other is a white hole, emitting matter. While this gives the impression that black holes in our universe may connect to white holes elsewhere, in reality, this is untrue, for two reasons. First, Schwarzschild wormholes are unstable, disconnecting as soon as they form. Second, Schwarzschild wormholes are only a solution to the Einstein field equations in vacuum (when no matter interacts with the hole)."
Real black holes are formed by the collapse of stars. But when the in falling stellar matter is added to a diagram of a black hole's history, it removes the part of the diagram corresponding to the white hole. [1] The existence of white holes that are not part of a wormhole is doubtful, as they appear to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Quasars and active galactic nuclei are observed to spew out jets of matter. This is now believed to be the result of polar jets formed when matter falls into super massive black holes at the centers of these objects. Prior to this model, white holes emitting matter were one possible solution.
A more recently proposed view of black holes might be interpreted as shedding some light on the nature of classical white holes. Some researchers proposed that when a black hole forms, a big bang occurs at the core, which creates a new universe that expands into extra dimensions outside of the parent universe. [2.] The initial feeding of matter from the parent universe's black hole and the expansion that follows in the new universe might be thought of as a cosmological type of white hole. Unlike traditional white holes, this type of white hole would not be localized in space in the new universe, and its horizon would have to be identified with the cosmological horizon.
The problem with white holes is that they violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that any ordered system becomes more disorganized (if you drop an egg, it will become a disordered mess, but a disordered mess will never spontaneously form a perfect egg), and so a system which adds order to a system is not possible. [Are you getting confused yet, where's my aspirin, this makes my head hurt].  Perhaps the power of the White and Black Hole's themselves, disrupts or suspends this Second Law.  However, when a universal law (i.e. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) is proposed to be violated, any theory's credibility cannot be accepted as fact. This explains why many believe that a white hole cannot exist, even though a few staunch supports (scientists, physicists, Discovery Channel, etc.) believe they do exist.  As the human eye expands further out into the universe, it appears that we are on the precipice of new discoveries about, not only White Holes ( if indeed they do exist), but significant, new evidence about black ones.  Stay tuned.
1. http://casa.colorado.edu/~ajsh/collapse.html#kruskal

2. E. Fahri and A. H. Guth (1987). "An Obstacle to Creating a Universe in the
Laboratory". Physics Letters B183: 149.

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Emanuel Paparella2009-01-25 15:42:37
Indeed Jack, the paradox seems to be that the more we understand the laws of the universe the less we seem to understand the very origins of the universe. The proverbial unified theory which explain everything may forever elude us, for as Vico well pointed out, human can only fully understand what they themselves have made. On the other hand since it is not an oxymoron to think of the universe as eternal (as even Aquinas suggests) one can make the universe one’s god or idol as Carl Sagan did, and declare God unemployed. There is however one glitch in the atheist’s clever logical scheme and it is Berkley’s argument that despite the fact that the universe may be eternal, the spiritual and not the material remains primary and in fact the material would not last a second without a perceiving Mind, what the Greeks called “nous.”

Jack2009-01-25 21:20:03

Yes, you said it well my friend with saying that "one can make the universe one’s god or idol as Carl Sagan did, and declare God unemployed".

Well put as well that would the material world exist withouit a Mind to perceive it. This reminds me of "If a tree fell in the forrest and no one were there to hear it, would it make a sound?"

Alas, my marriage of some years makes a similar paradox of philosophy. If a husband speaks in the forrest and his wife is not there to hear it...Is he still wrong?

Thank you for your comments and depth of thought, as always. If language's text smiles, would it be perceived by the reader? :-)

Emanuel Paparella2009-01-26 00:21:10
Only with a symbol :) jack which does not much look like a smile but we have both agreed it means that. Hence writing is once removed from reality and art as Plato thought twice removed and therefore less useful than philosophy. And yet, and yet, one has to wonder; does the symbolism of language and art give us a glimpse into the divine? Is it a mirror to us which helps us know ourselves? Does writing take us further than oral language. What do we gain with writing, what do we lose? Fascinating questions, at least to me. Thanks for the insightful exchange Jack.

Alexander Mikhaylov2009-01-27 00:11:23
To Dr. Paparella: According to the Bible, the oral 'word' was the first. Therefore, it is safe to assume that a written word came later. (It is not my wish to advocate Biblical theory over science but I believe the oral 'word' statement holds certain, I should say, eternal mystery.)

Emanuel Paparella2009-01-28 07:07:48
Indeed, Mr. Mikhaylov, rivers of ink have been expended on the interpretation of the Biblical "The Word" or its hermeneutics. The one I like best is "the point of it all." The Greeks were very much aware of what they called the logos, or the point of it all for creation and evolution and its telos or purpose. We, enlightened men, the children of Voltaire find the point of it all in nihilism and thereby show our spiritual destitution.

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