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Eureka: A unified theory of communication Eureka: A unified theory of communication
by Jay Gutman
2018-01-08 07:37:04
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The table below contains briefly the main characteristics of communication that I have identified.



Two-people dialogue

Group conversation



Some monologues come in secret forms that are not meant to be revealed to the public, such as in diaries or in personal notes. Other monologues are intended to a closed group of people, while others have no restrictions to who can attend.

Some dialogues are intended to the knowledge of the two people only discussing the matter. Others are semi-public, as in restaurants or cafés where people can technically eavesdrop but no one really does. Some dialogues are public, as in those held in the radio, television or dialogues in social media.

Some group conversations are intended to be secret and their contents are not to be revealed. Others are held in semi-public places where anyone can eavesdrop, others are public as in public forums, the media or social media.

An increasing number of public conversations are private because no one really bothers to attend. Some secret conversations are leaked.



“I, as President, will work hard to solve your problems”  vs. “Ask not what your country can do for you but ask what you can do for your country”


In hierarchical monologues, supervisors make it clear that they are in charge. In egalitarian monologues efforts tend to be expected from all sides.

In hierarchical dialogues, one person clearly dominates the conversation and the subordinate is expected to take orders or to listen carefully.


In egalitarian dialogues orders, suggestions and stories flow both ways.

In hierarchical group conversation, one person dominates the conversation while the others listen. The leader rarely asks questions or opens the debate.


In egalitarian conversation, there may be leaders, but questions and debates flow from all sides, while the leader might draw conclusions from the conversation and suggesst to take action.



Some monologues are meant to make people laugh, either in the form of stand-up comedy, comedy or speeches with less serious tones.


In serious monologues, the subject matter is discussed seriously.

Some conversations will involve jokes rather than serious topics. Others prefer serious topics to jokes and a light atmosphere.

Groups can come together to laugh, play and joke around. Others discuss more serious matters.

In some cultures, jokes or playful talk is used before serious talks are held. Other cultures prefer moving directly to serious matters.


A cynical monologue is one that discusses all the flaws of a subject matter and does not see the qualities of the subject matter. A respectful monologue is one that sees both the qualities and the flaws of the subject matter but neither insists on the flaws nor on the qualities. A deferencial monologue is one that focuses on the qualities, while omiting the flaws of the subject matter.

Some dialogues focus on the flaws. Others focus on the flaws and the qualities. Others focus exclusively on the qualities and omits the flaws.

Same as dialogues.

When in love, some only see qualities before gradually focusing on the flaws. A healthy relationship is one that sees qualities and flaws from the start, and maintains respect on both the flaws and the qualities.


Warning signs include a man or a woman who refuses to discuss your flaws or his flaws, or who refuses to discuss your qualities or his or her qualities.



In aggressive monologues the audience's flaws will be blatantly pointed to. In passive-aggressive talk the audience's flaws will be hinted to. In cooperative talk while the audience's flaws might be mentioned, the focus will be on their qualities.

An aggressive dialogue is one where flaws will be directly pointed to. A passive-aggressive dialogue is one where flaws will be repeatedly hinted at. A cooperative dialogue is one where both qualities and flaws will be discussed.

Same as dialogue

There has been a gradual shift from aggressive teaching to cooperative teaching, although aggressive teaching and passive-aggressive teaching is still the norm.



An assymetric monologue is one where one's knowledge is adjusted to the audience's knowledge. A schizogenetic dialogue is one where the audience often has no idea what the speaker is talking about, often in a deliberate attempt by the speaker to demonstrate superior knowledge. Example: giving a talk in English to a French-speaking audience.

An assymetric dialogue is one where both parties focus on common knowledge. A schizogenetic dialogue is one where speakers discuss topics that are unfamiliar or not interesting to them.

Same as dialogue



A passionate monologue is one that makes use of high tones, high pitch and emotions. A low-toned monologue is one with low-tones, a low pitch and few emotions.

A passionate dialogue is one where both parties use high tone, high pitch and lots of emotions. A low-toned dialogue is one with a low-tone, low-pitch and low emotions.



High-context/Low context

A high context monologue is one where it is up to the audience to guess the context and few context cues are used. A low context monologue is one where the background and contest of the speech are constantly reminded.





Surroundings based

An individual-based monologue is one where the speaker is constantly talking about himself. A group-based monologue is a monologue where the speaker is talking about himself and his circle. A surroundings-based monologue is one where a person does not discuss himself or his close friends, but surroundings and public figures.



Deborah Tannen class this rapport-talk vs. Report tallk



A self-aggrandizing monologue is one where the person focuses on their qualities and tries to exclude their flaws when talking about oneself. A humble monologue is where one tries to minimize or hide their qualities and focus on their flaws.




Leaning-bassed/ Teaching-based

Some monologues focus both on what the speaker knows and does not know. Other monologues focus exclusively on what the speaker knows.

Some dialogues focus on mutual learning and collecting of information while others focus exclusively on teaching information and refuse learning. In teaching-based dialogues, speakers would rather make educated guesses than ask for information or clarifications.




Cold monologues are monologues where good news or bad news are presented with a flat tone. Empathy-based monologues use positive tones when conveying good news and negative tones when conveying bad news.

In cold dialgoeues, speakers have no emotional reactions to good news or bad news. In empathy-based dialogues speakers use positive tones for good news and negative tones for bad news.





Sensual or seductive monologues try to arouse positive emotions among the audience. Emotional monologues try to arouse positive and negative emotions among the audience. Factual monologues merely enumerate facts and do not intend to arouse emotions in the audience. Narrative monologues use flat story-telling that arouses little emotion among the audience.

Sensual or seductive dialogues are dialogues where speakers intend to arouse positive emotions among each other. Emotional dialogues arouse positive and negative emotions among speakers. Factual dialogues are enumerations of facts that arouse no emotions. Narrative dialogues are dialogues where story-telling is the norm and little emotion is intended to be aroused.



Based on indivuduals/Based on events/ Based on ideas

Monologues based on individuals will discuss individual people. Monologues based on events will discuss the unfolding of events. Monologues based on ideas will discuss abstract and concrete ideas in the realm of books, theories or philosophy in a broad sense.

Dialgues based on people discuss individuals and their actions. Dialogues based on events will discuss the unfolding of events. Dialogues based in ideas will discuss ideas in the realm of books, philosophy or theory.



Open to all topics/Closed to some topics

Monologues open to all topics will place no restriction on the topics being discussed. Monologues closed to some topics will refuse to discuss some topics.

Dialogues open to all topics will place no limits on the topics of conversation. Dialogues closed to some topics will place restrictions on the topics being discussed.




Flowing monologues are monologues that flow and do not seem to falter. Stilted monologues are monologues where the speaker seems to have gaps when speaking, will use a lot of pauses and hesitations.

Flowing dialogues have few pauses and hesitations. Stilted dialogues have many pauses and hesitations.




Ambiguous monologues will be vague and will demand clarifications. Fantasy monologues will not demand many clarifications but some accounts will not be accurate. Accurate dialogues will place a focus on accuracy.

Ambiguous dialogues will have speakers exchanging information on vague terms. Fantasy dialogues will have speakers conversing in precise terms, but with little accuracy in the account. Accurate dialogues place a focus on the accuracy of the account being delivered.



Hierarchical based interruption vs. Topic-based interruption vs. Addition-based interruption


In hierarchical based interruptions, one of the speakers will be interrupted by another based on higher status or seniority. When a speaker interrupts another based on a topic, this means the topic should not be discussed. In addition-based interruption, one of the speakers will interrupt the other speaker to add information.



Criticism rejecting and Praise accepting/Criticism accepting and praise rejecting/Criticism and praise rejecting


In some dialogues, criticism is rejected and praise is accepted by one of the speakers or the speakers. In other dialogues, speakers accept criticism but reject praise. In some dialogues, speakers accept both praise and criticism. In other dialogues, speakers reject both praise and criticism/.





In hypercorrective dialogues, speakers will tend to correct their information or form of speech frequently. In corrective dialogues, speakers might correct their speech or form occasionally. In non-corrective dialogues, speakers don't correct each other's content or form.




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